In order to curb seditious activities and destroy anti-British claims, the Rowlatt Committee was formulated during the First World War in 1919. Sir Sidney Rowlatt chaired the committee and thus the act that bears his name. The official name of the legislation was the Anarchic and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919, a dead gift to the colonial administration`s intentions. The British colonial government passed the Rowlatt Act, which gave police the power to arrest anyone without cause. The purpose of the law was to contain the growing nationalist rise in the country. Mahatma Gandhi called on the people to perform satyagraha against the act.   On the recommendation of the Rowlatt Committee and the name of its chairman, Sir Sidney Rowlatt, the Act authorized the British colonial government to imprison for up to two years any suspected terrorist living in British India, and gave colonial authorities the power to deal with all revolutionary activities. The Rowlatt Act was passed on March 18, 1919 and was called the « Black Act » and sparked national outrage. It was based on a committee headed by Sidney Rowlatt and modelled on the Defence of India Act 1915. The latter, enacted during the First World War (1914-18), gave « extraordinary powers » to the police and allowed for « emergency measures » to deal with people who posed a threat to national security while Britain was fighting a world war. Unpopular legislation provided for stricter control of the press[a] arrests without warrant,[b] indefinite detention without trial, and jurors in trials for prohibited political acts[c] Defendants were denied the right to know prosecutors and evidence used in the trial. [e]  Convicts were required to provide guarantees upon release and were not allowed to participate in political, educational, or religious activities.  Following the report of the committee, chaired by Justice Rowlatt, two bills were introduced in the Central Legislative Assembly on February 6, 1919.
 These bills are known as « black bills. » They gave the police enormous powers to search a place and arrest anyone they disapproved of without a warrant. Despite much opposition, the Rowlatt Act was passed on March 18, 1919. The purpose of the law was to contain the growing nationalist rise in the country. Under the Rowlatt Act of 1919, the Chief Justice had the power to rule on the immediate detention of the accused between trial and bail to ensure proper application of the law. The Act also provides for a penalty for disobedience to an order issued under sections 22 and 27 of the Act, which is a maximum term of imprisonment of six months or a fine of Rs 500 or both. The Rowlatt Act, known as the Black Act, was passed by the British government in 1919 during the First World War. It was named after Sir Sidney Rowlatt, Chairman of the Rowlatt Committee. The purpose of the application of this law was to abolish the revolt and uproot the conspiracy against the British from India.
Read also – From the result of the CBSE compartment to the GATE 2023 registration; Check out September`s top educational events You may also want to read some facts about the Quit India movement. Rowlatt Acts, (February 1919), a bill passed by the Imperial Legislative Council, the legislature of British India. These laws allowed certain political cases to be tried without a jury and suspects to be detained without trial. Its purpose was to replace the repressive provisions of the Defence of India Act (1915) with a permanent law. They were based on the 1918 report of the S.A.T. Rowlatt Justice Committee. Shortly thereafter, on April 10, two prominent congressional leaders, Dr. Satya Pal and Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew, were arrested as a terrorist suspect and taken to an unknown location.
In this context, a demonstration was organized in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, on April 13, 1919. Many people from different parts of Punjab gathered there because it was Baisakhi, their religious festival. They were not aware of the prohibition of municipalities under the Rowlatt Act. Jallianwala Bagh was a walled garden with 5 narrow exits. As soon as people entered, General Dyer and his troops opened fire on the crowd and targeted all sorties. About 1000 innocent people were killed and more than 1200 injured in this massacre, which was the darkest of all British rule. The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919, commonly known as the Rowlatt Act, was a law that applied in British India. It was an Act of the Legislative Council, passed on July 18. It was passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in Delhi in March 1919 and extended indefinitely the emergency measures of indefinite pre-trial detention, detention without trial and judicial review enacted in the Defence of India Act 1915 during World War I. It was decreed in light of a perceived threat by revolutionary nationalists to re-engage in conspiracies similar to those that had occurred during the war, which the government believed that the expiration of India`s Defence Act would make possible.
     The Rowlatt Act provoked the nation`s anger. The immediate fallout was the Rowlatt Satyagraha, demanded by Mahatma Gandhi less than three weeks later, on April 6, 1919. As a result, Indians would refrain from going to work and holding meetings against the repressive law. Get the chance now to meet leading experts from around the world, enjoy exclusive, in-depth content and curated programs on culture, art and heritage, and join us for special tours with our LHI Circle premium service. Register here. The Rowlatt Act went into effect on March 21, 1919. In Punjab, the protest movement was very strong, and on 10 April, two Congress leaders, Dr. Satyapal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, were arrested and secretly taken to Dharamsala.   It was the Rowlatt Act that brought Gandhi into the mainstream of the struggle for Indian independence and ushered in the Gandhi era of Indian politics.